Sustainability: There are many changes which occur in the environment slowly over time. Organic agriculture aims to produce food while establishing an ecological balance to prevent soil fertility or pest problems. It takes a proactive approach as opposed to treating problems after they emerge.
Soil: Soil building practices such as crop rotations, inter-cropping, symbiotic associations, cover crops, organic fertilisers and minimum tillage are central to organic practices.
These encourage soil fauna and flora, improving soil formation and creating more stable systems so nutrients and water in soil are enhanced which helps in soil erosion control.
Air and climate change: Organic agriculture reduces non-renewable energy use by decreasing agrochemical needs. It contributes to mitigating the greenhouse effect and global warming through its ability to set apart the carbon in the soil.
Biodiversity: Organic farmers are both custodians and users of biodiversity at all levels:
At the gene level, traditional and adapted seeds and breeds are preferred for their greater resistance to diseases and their resilience to climatic stress.
At the species level, diverse combinations of plants and animals optimise nutrient and energy cycling for agricultural production.
At the ecosystem level, the maintenance of natural areas within and around organic fields and absence of chemical inputs create suitable habitats for wildlife.